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Libyan radio changes its schedule The state radio in neighbouring Libya had pre-empted this information and was announcing Sadat's death within an hour of the shooting in Cairo, giving rise to suspicions that sources in Libya may have had advanced warning of the attack.
At GMT, Tripoli radio announced that General Shazly, a former Egyptian army chief of staff now living in Libya as leader of the Egyptian National Front an umbrella opposition group , would "be broadcasting an important announcement to the people shortly".
At GMT it was broadcasting calls to the Egyptian people, urging them to take over the radio station in Cairo and, in typical polemical style, announcing that "Sadat's face has disappeared, the ugly face has disappeared with all its shame, capitulation and defeat.
Sadat has died and some of his ministers have died too. In response to events, Libyan radio discontinued its relay of its domestic service on short wave at GMT, replacing it with its Voice of the Arab Homeland external service for listeners in the Arab world.
This service does not normally start until Only at GMT did it give any indication of the trouble by starting to broadcast chants from the Koran.
This announcement, and the English news bulletin for Europe at , gave very few details of the manner of Sadat's death but merely said he had been attacked at the parade to commemorate "the 6th October victory", the day when "dignity was restored to the entire Arab nation".
Rather than air a broadcast that made no mention of the news from Cairo, its Libyan operators decided that the station should remain silent that day.
Clandestine, black, white and grey are terms often seen in books and articles about the use of radio in conflict, including in so-called influence operations and psychological warfare.
The words are sometimes misunderstood and misused. This article attempts to explain their meanings and provide examples of each type.
Confusion Confusion can arise because there are two axes to consider: The clandestine to non-clandestine axis which refers to location The black to white axis, including shades of grey which refers to content Clandestine or not?
Grey propaganda is information of questionable origin that is never sourced and whose accuracy is doubtful. Black propaganda is information put out by an opposing government or institution and made to look as though it comes from a friendly source.
The differences between Black and Grey stations are as follows: Black. They depend as much upon cover as upon content and technique to achieve their object.
Their disguise, both as to location and control, must be sufficiently plausible to deceive their audience. Their disguise need only consist of a plausible cover that they are not under British control.
They depend entirely on content and technique to achieve their object. When it comes to applying the above framework to real-life examples it's not always easy to stick to the rigid definitions of white, grey and black.
I sometimes use grey to describe any degree of ambiguity. Examples 1. They spoke openly and authentically on behalf of their sponsoring group but sought to conceal their physical location.
The latter spoke on behalf of the Sudan People's Liberation Army using the facilities of the state radio service in neighbouring Ethiopia.
Clandestine and Grey: These also concealed their location. But in contrast to the first category above they were silent or not fully explicit about their sponsors.
Many of the numerous clandestine radio stations that targeted Iran and Iraq in the s and s were clandestine and various shades of grey in some cases, dark grey to black.
Among those aimed at Iraq, one interesting group used a very powerful mediumwave AM transmitter in either Kuwait or Saudi Arabia. This was first heard in carrying anti-Saddam material under a variety of fancy labels such as Radio Freedom a.
In the transmitter began carrying a truly black operation, Iraqi Army Radio , which targeted dissident members of the Iraqi armed forces with material that included coded personal messages.
There were also various Soviet-bloc clandestine radio operations — black, grey and white — targeting non-communist parts of Europe during the Cold War, including those aimed at France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Turkey.
From the other side of the Cold War divide, the Voice of the Khmer station that attempted to undermine the Vietnamese occupation of Cambodia in the s was also black as it did not disclose its US backing.
Its clandestine status came from its claim to operate from "liberated" territory inside Cambodia when in fact it was based in neighbouring Thailand.
The anti-Mugabe Radio Truth of the s also fell into the black category. It posed as a voice of disaffected Zimbabweans but was in reality entirely a creation of South Africa.
Its broadcasts were therefore a good example of the PWE belief above that grey outlets "depend entirely on content and technique to achieve their object".
The various rebel-run stations during the Libyan civil war in also operated openly. The same went for the various Voice of Palestine stations operated by the PLO, broadcasting from the state broadcasting organisations of Arab countries.
In reality, it was fully controlled by the Soviet government and aimed at supporting Soviet foreign policy objectives.
Voice of the Coast , the British-run station in the Gulf in the s, was a light shade of grey. Non-Clandestine and Black: Radio Impacto , the anti-Sandinist station that broadcast to Nicaragua in the s from neighbouring Costa Rica, posed as a standard commercial radio station based in San Jose hence the non-clandestine status but it is widely assumed that it was covertly funded and directed by the US authorities.
Finally The few examples given above are just a tiny fraction of the many hundreds of clandestine, subversive, insurgent and dissident radio operations in the second half of the 20th century.
Their classifications along the clandestine to non-clandestine and black to white axes are in all cases my own subjective judgments.
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